Bill deformities in songbirds

This compilation of bill deformities is property of the Rouge River Bird Observatory. Do not use or cite without written permission. Copyright for photos is held by photographers. Please do not use without permission from individual listed.

Flycatchers to Horned Lark (pg 1)
Swallows through bluebirds (pg 2)
Thrushes through European Starling (pg 3)
Warblers through towhees (pg 4)
Sparrows through orioles (below)
Purple Finch through House Sparrow + Literature Cited (p6)
Bill Tumors, Most Due to Avian Pox


Sparrows through orioles


Species

Details

Source

American Tree Sparrow (Spizella arborea)IL; experiment involving high air temperatures caused bill deformitiesWest 1959
Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla)21 Oct 1961; U-U; Rector, PA; slightly crossed Powdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Field Sparrow31 Oct 1987; U-U; Rector, PA; maxilla crossed rightPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Field Sparrow15 Jun 1997; AHY-M; Rector, PA; maxilla slightly crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Field Sparrow15 Jan 2012; AHY-U; Bucktoe Creek reserve
Chester Co., PA; maxilla elongated, coarse-looking, pointing upwards
Flickr
Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus)29 Apr 2015; AHY-M; Yeehaw Junction, Osceola County, FL; maxilla and mandible curved to one sideErin Ragheb (Erin DOT Ragheb AT myFWC DOT com)
Lark Bunting
(Calamospiza melanocorys)
21 Dec 2007; U-F; Yuma Co., CO; maxilla elongated and downcurvedBill Schmoker (bill.schmoker AT gmail.com)
Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia)AHY-F, 23 May 2000, Point au Sauble, Lower Green Bay, WIAndy Paulios (paulat06 AT uwgb.edu)
Song Sparrow1 Sep 2002; HY-U; Burdett, NY; severely crossedJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs., (khmo aT att.net)
Song Sparrow2 May 2006 through 7 Oct 2006; AHY-F; Pine Gulch Creek, Palomarin Field Station, Point Reyes Bird Obs.; maxilla crossed right over mandible. Bird was not noted to have crossed bill on first capture for banding, but noted on 3 subsequent recaptures.Mark Dettling (mdettling AT hotmail DOT com)
Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii)8 Oct 1990; HY-U; Rector, PA; crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Golden-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla)AHY-U; 16 Jan 1997; San Francisco, CA; crossed; "overweight" at 41 gr!Rita Colwell (birding AT ibm.net)
White-throated
Sparrow
(Zonotrichia albicollis)
U-U (not a banded bird); 31 Oct 2001; Tunbridge, VT; severely crossedAnne Aversa (ataversa AT together.net)
White-throated Sparrow15 Oct 1971; HY-U; Rector, PA; maxilla long and decurved, slightly crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
White-throated
Sparrow,
also here
21 Nov 2006; HY-M; maxilla crossed to right; Spring Creek Meadow, High Park, Toronto, OntarioToronto Bird Observatory (tboweb ATsympatico.ca)
White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys25 March 2011; AHY-U; near Pritchett, CO; crossed at tipFlickr
Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis)5 Dec 1976; HY-F; Rector, PA; maxilla badly crossed to right, gap of 2.5 mmPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Dark-eyed Junco28 Oct 1987; AHY-M; Rector, PA; crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Dark-eyed Junco9 Nov 1997; AHY-M; Rector, PA; crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Dark-eyed JuncoPhoto dated 25 Sep 2010; U-U; Mission, BC, Canada; maxilla deformed and curved to one sideFlickr
Dark-eyed "Red-backed" JuncoPhoto dated 7 Mar 2016; AHY-U; southeastern New Mexico; crossed at tip, mandible slightly flattenedFlickr
Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)AHY-F (not a banded bird); 26 Feb 2003; Marietta, GA; mandible severely elongatedSam Buehner (stamnit AT earthlink.net)
Northern Cardinal3 Sep 2003; HY-M; Dearborn, Wayne Co., MI; flange on left side of mandible (spoon-like)Rouge River Bird Observatory, Julie Craves (jac.rrbo AT gmail.com)
Northern Cardinal8 Oct 2003; HY-M; Burdett, NY; excessive keratin on maxillaJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs., (khmo aT att.net)
Northern CardinalJul-Aug 2004; AHY-F; Carol Stream, IL; maxilla spatulateDennis Biagoili (DennyRB AT aol.com)
Northern Cardinal22 May 2006 and 7 Oct 2006; AHY-F; Maxilla 2/3 length of mandible, and crossed over to the right; Metro Beach Metropark, Macomb Co., MIAllen Chartier (amazilia1 AT comcast.net)
Northern Cardinal14 Dec 2010; U-F; Southport, NC; bill appearing to have excessive keratin, maxilla elongated, appearing brittle and flaky, mandible elongated, flaky, curving downward, looks like tip broken off but may have been spatulate at one time.John Ennis (johnxennis AT bellsouth DOT net)
Northern Cardinal5 and 22 July 2011; HY-U; Cincinnati, OH; severely crossedJane Van Coney (vancon4 AT aol DOT com)
Northern Cardinal3 July 2012; HY-M; near Ypsilanti, Washtenaw Co., MI; maxilla shortened, mandible elongated and spoon or scoop shapedDenise Gakle; more photos here.
Northern Cardinal4 Aug 2012; AHY-F; Pittsfield, MA; maxilla very short, mandible scoop-shapedFlickr
Northern Cardinal2 Aug 2013; AHY-M; unknown; maxilla grossly elongated and flattened and hooked at tipFlickr
Northern CardinalMarch 2014; AHY-M; near San Antonio, TX; maxilla grossly elongated and flattenedJames Rejzek (jgr1127 AT gmail DOT com)
Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)9 Sep 1904; AHY-F; Illinois?; maxilla sharply downcurved, eye socket misshapenWoodruff 1907
Rose-breasted Grosbeak8 Aug 2002; HY-M; Burdett, NY; deformed on right side, both maxilla and mandible twistedJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs., (khmo aT att.net)
Rose-breasted Grosbeak10 Oct 1984; HY-M; Rector, PA; crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Rose-breasted Grosbeak30 Aug 2002; HY-F; Burdett, NY; excessive keratin on maxilla, nearly double normal sizeJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs., (khmo aT att.net)
Rose-breasted Grosbeak27 Aug 2003; AHY-F; Burdett, HY; growth on maxilla - appears to be excessive keratin formationJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs., (khmo aT att.net)
Rose-breasted Grosbeak5 Sep 2003; HY-F; Burdett, NY; deformed bill - both excessive keratin on maxilla and misshapen mandible which opened to the sides in an omega shapeJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs., (khmo aT att.net)
Yellow Grosbeak (Pheucticus chrysopeplus)~27 Jan to 1 May 2006; HY-M; Albuquerque, NM; mandible larger and more massive than maxilla. Image here. May be same bird that appeared in Inyo Co., CA 31 Jul - 2 Aug 2006; image here. Bills looked similar.
Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea~12 Oct 2009; AHY-F; Fort Morgan, AL; bill crossed (photos hard to determine which is out of alignment) and missing left eye.Jenn Mizen (jennmizen AT gmail DOT com)
Dickcissel (Spiza americana)12 Apr 2016; U-U; Camp Sherman, OR; maxilla somewhat deformed, mandible enlarged and spoon-shapedFlickr
Red-winged Blackbird
(Agelaius phoeniceus)
July 1992; AHY-M; Ventura Co., CA; mandible splitJim Greaves (LBVIMAN AT BLACKFOOT.NET)
Red-winged BlackbirdSY-M; 25 May 1976, Livingston Co., MI; maxilla a recurved stumpFialia 1981
Red-winged Blackbird1 Jun 1968; SY-M; Rector, PA; tips crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Red-winged Blackbird19 Mar 2006; two males, SY?; Rowe Sanctuary, Gibbon, NE; elongated with apparently divergent tipsSharon Stiteler (sharon AT birdchick.com)
Red-winged Blackbird19 Mar 2006; male, ASY?; Pojoaque, NM; maxilla greatly elongated and wavy, mandible elongated and downcurvedChuck Hathcock (hathcock AT lanl.gov)
Red-winged BlackbirdAtchison, KS; 26 Feb 2011: ASY-M; maxilla very elongated and very flattenedTodd Goehner (kgoehner AT att DOT net)
Red-winged Blackbird26 Feb 2007; ASY-M; Kuna, ID; maxilla greatly elongated (4-5 inches)Neva Black (nevablack AT hotmail DOT com)
Red-winged Blackbird12 Mar 2013; ASY-M; 2 miles west of Hesston, KS; mandible greatly elongated and somewhat thickened.Allen Pinkall (pinkallaj AT embarqmail DOT com)
Red-winged Blackbird~18 Jul 2013; AHY-M; Morro Bay, CA; maxilla elongated, mandible elongated and decurvedFlickr
Red-winged Blackbird9 May 2015; ASY-M; Port Rowan sewage lagoons,Port Rowan, ON; Suzanne Southon (s.southon AT sympatico DOT ca)
Red-winged Blackbird27 Jan 2016; AHY-M; Yolo Bypass, Davis, CA; severely crossed, also note elongated clawsFlickr
Western Meadowlark, (Sturnella neglecta)Antelope State Park, Davis Co., UT; AHY-U; 8 March 2011; maxilla elongatedMia McPherson (mm AT onthewingphotography DOT com)
Meadowlark
sp
. (Sturnella magna/neglecta)
Winter 2002; Patagonia, AZ; maxilla and mandible greatly elongaged, especially maxillaEarle Robinson (birdfoto2 AT aol.com)
Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus)24 Apr 1968; AHY-M; Rector, PA; crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Common Grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)4 Jun 1967; AHY-M; Rector, PA; severely crossed and deformed maxillaPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill
(mulvipnr AT westol DOT com)
Common GrackleJune 2008; grossly elongated, keratinized, deformed and downcurved maxilla; Houston, TXFlickr
Common Grackle8 Feb 2014; St. Louis, MO; AHY-M (?); both mandible and maxilla elongated, curved downwardPamela J. Schaffner (pschaffner AT hpgresources DOT com)
Brown-headed
Cowbird
(Molothrus ater)
20 Jun 2004; SY-M; Ft. Riley, KS, maxilla crossed over bottomDavid Rintoul (drintoul AT ksu.edu)
Brown-headed Cowbird1 May 2000; AHY-M; Brackettville, Kinney Co., TX; crossedKevin Ellison (kellis_6 AT yahoo.co.uk)
Brown-headed
Cowbird
4 Aug 2004; HY-U; Ft. Hood, Killeen, TX; severely crossed; specimen at Chicago Field Museum Nat. Hist.Kevin Ellison (kellis_6 AT yahoo.co.uk)
Brown-headed Cowbird19 Aug 2011; AHY-M; Boothville, Plaquemines Parish, LA; maxilla extremely elongated and downcurvedFlickr
Brown-headed Cowbird26 Mar 2013; AHY-F; Caddo Parish, LA; maxilla elongated and flangedFlickr
Orchard Oriole (Icterus spurius)21 Aug 2005; HY-F; mandible shortened from tip, and thickened at base, no crossing; Metro Beach Metropark, Macomb Co., MI (photo available from bander). Cross posted at bill tumor page.Allen Chartier (amazilia1 AT comcast.net)
Hooded Oriole, (Icterus cucullatus)9 Aug 2013; Brea, Orange Co., CA; HY-U; maxilla mostly missingFlickr
Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbula)HY-U; July 1996; Rensellaerville, NY, crossedAnthony Hill (Anthony_Hill AT hotmail.com)
8 Jul 2015; U-U; Kaukauna; crossed at very tipvia Wisconsin Birding Facebook page

Maxilla = Top, Mandible = Bottom.

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