Bill deformities in songbirds

This compilation of bill deformities is property of the Rouge River Bird Observatory. Do not use or cite without written permission. Copyright for photos is held by photographers. Please do not use without permission from individual listed.

Flycatchers to Horned Lark (pg 1; updated 31 March 2014)
Swallows through bluebirds (pg 2, updated 31 March 2014)
Thrushes through European Starling (below, updated 31 March 2014)
Warblers through towhees (pg 4, updated 28 Jul 2014)
Sparrows through orioles (pg 5, updated 31 March 2014)
Crossbills through House Sparrow + Literature Cited (p6, updated 27 Aug 2013)
Bill Tumors, Most Due to Avian Pox (not being updated)


Thrushes through European Starling


Species

Details

Source

Veery (Catharus fuscescens)HY-U; 1 Oct 2005; Key Biscayne. FL; maxilla sharply crossedRobin Diaz (rd4birds AT bellsouth DOT net)
Gray-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus)"...grossly deformed bill."  Woodstock, VTAnon. 1999
Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustalatus)HY-U; 29 Sep 94; Dearborn, Wayne Co. MI; severely crossed, mandible also curved down and gave jaw a dislocated lookRouge River Bird Observatory, Julie Craves (jac.rrbo AT gmail DOT com)
Swainson's Thrush21 Sep 1977; AHY-U; Rector, PA; mandible crossed to leftPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill (mulvipnr
AT westol DOT com)
Gray Catbird (Dumetella
carolinensis)
3 in Ft. Morgan, ALBob Sargent (RubyThroat
AT aol.com)
Gray CatbirdAHY-F; 2 Jun 95, Dearborn, Wayne Co. MI; slightly crossed at tipRouge River Bird Observatory, Julie Craves (jac.rrbo AT gmail DOT com)
Gray CatbirdHY-U; 11 Sep 01, Dearborn, Wayne Co. MI; slightly crossed at tipRouge River Bird Observatory, Julie Craves (jac.rrbo AT gmail DOT com)
Gray Catbird28 Sep 1963; U-U; Rector, PA; slightly crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill (mulvipnr
AT westol DOT com)
Gray Catbird2 Sep 1995; AHY-U; Rector, PA; crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill (mulvipnr
AT westol DOT com)
Gray CatbirdHY-U; 4 Sep 03; Rector, PA; severely crossed billPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill (mulvipnr
AT westol DOT com)
Gray CatbirdAHY-U; 17 May 2001; near Pierre, SDDoug Backlund (Doug.Backlund
AT state.sd.us)
Gray CatbirdAHY-U; 14 Oct 2004; Tiffin, OH; extremely elongated maxilla showing erosion similar to poxDeb Plotts, Miller Stonebraker Bird Observatory (dplotts AT woh.rr.com)
Gray CatbirdHY-U; 7 Sep 05, Dearborn, Wayne Co. MI; top slightly crossed at tip, 2 mm to rightRouge River Bird Observatory, Julie Craves (jac.rrbo AT gmail DOT com)
Gray CatbirdHY-U; 19 Sep 05; Oahe Dam, Stanley Co., SD; severely crossedDoug Backlund (Doug.Backlund
AT state.sd.us)
Gray CatbirdHY-U; 15 Aug 06, Dearborn, Wayne Co. MI; bill slightly short and curved to right, top more so than bottom; slight gap when closedRouge River Bird Observatory, Julie Craves (jac.rrbo AT gmail DOT com)
Gray CatbirdPhoto labeled 7 Mar 2010; AHY-U; no location noted, possibly Wahoo, FL; mandible severely crossed, almost at a right angle to maxillaMyrna Erler-Bradshaw, Birder's World magazine atypical birds gallery
Gray CatbirdU-U; 26 Sep 2006; near Pierre, SDDoug Backlund (Doug.Backlund
AT state.sd.us)
Gray CatbirdHY-U; 22 Oct 2011; Muleshoe NWR, Bailey Co., TX; several millimeters of bill tip crossedSteve Collins (dcollins AT ufl DOT edu)
Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)Adult, with young; 4 Sep 05; Santa Barbara, near Laguna Creek adjacent to sewage treatment plant, CA Jim Greaves (LBVIMAN AT BLACKFOOT.NET)
Northern MockingbirdHY-U; 2 Oct 2007; Santa Clara, CA,
maxilla
Jim Chuq Von Rospach (chuqvr AT gmail.com)
Northern MockingbirdHY-U; Dec 2008; Everglades NP, FL;
mandible slightly elongated
Flickr
Northern Mockingbird2 Dec 2012; HY-U; Palm Springs, CA; maxilla slightly elongated and crossed at tipBarry Mantell (barryloo AT aol DOT com)
Northern Mockingbird2 Apr 2013; AHY-U; Gilbert Riparian preserve at Water Ranch, Gilbert, AZ; maxilla curved to create a gap with mandibleFlickr
Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)Ft. Morgan, ALBob Sargent (RubyThroat
AT aol.com)
Brown Thrasher1 Nov 1983; HY-U; Rector, PA; mandible crossed leftPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill (mulvipnr
AT westol DOT com)
Brown Thrasher28 Apr 2004; DeBary, FL; elongated and crossedPeter May (peter.may AT stetson.edu)
Brown ThrasherMay 2007; AHY-U; Birmingham, AL;
elongated and downcurved
Flickr
Brown Thrasher2008? Mandible straight, maxilla strongly decurved and crossed to one sideBirder's World Atypical Birds Online Gallery
Brown ThrasherPhoto labeled 14 Apr 2009, with photographer indicating bird was present for over a year; AHY-U; no location given, possibly near Norman, OK; mandible long and straight, maxilla crosses downwardRoy Neher, Birder's World magazine atypical birds gallery
Brown Thrasher10 May 2011; AHY-U; Valdosta, GA; both mandible and maxilla greatly elongatedKaren Seward
Brown Thrasher2010; L-U; Jacksonville, FL; bill severely crossed, missing one eyedinky14 AT aol.com
Brown Thrasher25 Mar 2013; SY-U; Bluebonnet Swamp Nature Center, Baton Rouge, LA; maxilla greatly elongedFlickr
Bendire's Thrasher (Toxostoma bendirei)19 Apr 2006; Portal, Cochise, Co., AZ; mandible elongatedDoug Backlund (Doug.Backlund
AT state.sd.us)
Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus)23 November 2008; near Dry Lake,
Navajo County, AZ; maxilla elongated and downcurved
Eric Hough
(erh36 AT nau DOT edu)
Curve-billed ThrasherPhoto dated 18 Oct 2010; Valmont, NM; both mandible and maxilla elongated and strongly downcurvedFlickr
Curve-billed Thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre)24 November to at least 5 December
2008; near Sonoita, AZ; both maxilla and mandible elongated, maxilla longer
than mandible and crossed to the right
Jim Lawrence (jlmotmot At yahoo DOT com)
Curve-billed Thrasher25 January 2011; AHY-U (M?); Tucson, AZ; maxilla and mandible elongated, curved downwards (maxilla appears more strongly curved)Flickr
California Thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum)20 Jan 2011; AHY-U; Lake Los Carneros, Goleta, CA; both mandible and maxilla elongated, 20% or so of distal tip crossedFlickr
American Robin (Turdus
migratorius
)
31 Jul 2003; HY-U; Burdett, NY; bill and lower skull severely deformedJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs. (khmo AT att.net)
American Robin6 Oct 2003; HY-U; Burdett, NY; maxilla slightly crossed rightJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs. (khmo AT att.net)
American RobinPhoto dated March 2008; both maxilla
and mandible curved upwards, tips diverging; presumable New Jersey
Flickr
American RobinJune to at least 8 Nov 2007; AHY-U (M?); Shoreline, King Co., WA; maxilla short and curled upwardChristine Southwick (clsouth AT
u.washington.edu)
American Robin29 January 2009; AHY-U; Thompson
Falls, MT; maxilla short and slightly twisted
Jim Greaves (LBVIMAN AT
BLACKFOOT.NET)
American Robin24 March 2009; Crosswinds Marsh, Wayne Co., MI; maxilla elongated and downcurvedPaul Cypher (paulcypher AT comcast DOT net)
American Robin30 Oct 2011; HY-U; Dearborn, Wayne Co., MI; both maxilla and mandible curved slightly to the right, maxilla slightly hookedRouge River Bird Observatory, Julie Craves (jac.rrbo AT gmail DOT com)
American Robin17 Sep 2011; HY-U; Arvada, CO; maxilla slightly elongated and crossed at tipFlickr
American Robin3 August 2013; SY-F (banded); Banshee Reeks Nature Preserve, Loudon Co., VA; maxilla curvedFlickr
Varied Thrush (Ixoreus naevius)6 April 2008; maxilla elongated and
slightly downcurved; Steamboat Springs, CO
Flickr
Varied Thrush24 March 2014; AHY-F; Thompson Falls, MT; tips slightly crossedJim Greaves (lbviman AT blackfoot DOT net)
Cedar Waxwing (Bombycilla
cedrorum
)
9 Aug 1997; HY-U; Rector, PA; badly crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill (mulvipnr
AT westol DOT com)
Cedar Waxwing5 Jun 1991; AHY-F; Rector, PA; crossedPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill (mulvipnr
AT westol DOT com)
Cedar Waxwing25 May 1996; SY-M; Rector, PA; maxilla crossed leftPowdermill Nature Reserve, Robert S. Mulvihill (mulvipnr
AT westol DOT com)
Cedar Waxwing6 Aug 2003; HY-U; Burdett, NY; maxilla missing from nares, appears genetic and not injuryJohn & Sue Gregoire, Kestrel Haven Avian Migration Obs. khmo AT att.net
European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)2001; U-U; Nashville, TN; severely overgrown maxilla (several inches), slightly downcurvedBarbara Harris (HarrBarbara AT bellsouth DOT net
European Starling Nov 2007; U-U; St. Louis, MO; severely overgrown maxilla (several inches), slightly downcurvedDana Perantie
danap AT npg.wustl.edu
European Starling7 Oct 1992; HY-F; Dearborn, Wayne Co., MI; malformed maxillaRouge River Bird Observatory, Julie Craves (jac.rrbo AT gmail DOT com)
European Starling21 Jan 1966; U-F; Raleigh, Wake Co.,
NC: maxilla slightly elongated; specimen at NC State Museum of Natural
Sciences
Becky Desjardins (Becky.Desjardins
AT ncmail.net)
European Starling 22 Dec 2007; Buena Vista CBC, Kern
Co., CA; maxilla greatly elongated and downcurved
Alison Sheehey (natureali AT lightspeed DOT net)
European Starling12 Apr 2009; AHY-U; Fairbanks, AK; both mandible and maxilla very elongated, slightly downcurved.Flickr
European StarlingMay 2011; AHY-M; Las Vegas, NV; both mandible and maxilla very elongated (mandible appears slightly longer) and curving downFlickr
European StarlingNovember 2012; U-U; Merced, CA; both maxilla and mandible (but especially maxilla) extremely elongatedSimone Salas (sfsalas AT sbcglobal DOT net)

Maxilla = Top, Mandible = Bottom.

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